#25453 PKCβII (D9S2U) Rabbit mAb
|PKCβII (D9S2U) Rabbit mAb recognizes endogenous levels of total PKCβII protein. This antibody does not cross-react with PKCβI protein.|
|Monoclonal antibody is produced by immunizing animals with a synthetic peptide corresponding to residues surrounding Val647 of human PKCβII protein.|
ホモロジー (相同性) 検索をご希望の場合 >>>
Western blot analysis of extracts from various cell lines using PKCβII (D9S2U) Rabbit mAb (upper) or β-Actin (D6A8) Rabbit mAb #8457 (lower).
Immunoprecipitation of PKCβII from K-562 cell extracts. Lane 1 is 10% input, lane 2 is Rabbit (DA1E) mAb IgG XP® Isotype Control #3900, and lane 3 is PKCβII (D9S2U) Rabbit mAb. Western blot analysis was performed using PKCβII (D9S2U) Rabbit mAb.
Flow cytometric analysis of HeLa cells (blue) and K-562 cells (green) using PKCβII (D9S2U) Rabbit mAb (solid lines) or a concentration matched Rabbit (DA1E) mAb IgG XP® Isotype Control #3900 (dashed lines). Anti-rabbit IgG (H+L), F(ab')2 Fragment (Alexa Fluor® 488 Conjugate) #4412 was used as a secondary antibody.
Activation of protein kinase C (PKC) is one of the earliest events in a cascade that controls a variety of cellular responses, including secretion, gene expression, proliferation, and muscle contraction (1,2). PKC isoforms belong to three groups based on calcium dependency and activators. Classical PKCs are calcium-dependent via their C2 domains and are activated by phosphatidylserine (PS), diacylglycerol (DAG), and phorbol esters (TPA, PMA) through their cysteine-rich C1 domains. Both novel and atypical PKCs are calcium-independent, but only novel PKCs are activated by PS, DAG, and phorbol esters (3-5). Members of these three PKC groups contain a pseudo-substrate or autoinhibitory domain that binds to substrate-binding sites in the catalytic domain to prevent activation in the absence of cofactors or activators. Control of PKC activity is regulated through three distinct phosphorylation events. Phosphorylation occurs in vivo at Thr500 in the activation loop, at Thr641 through autophosphorylation, and at the carboxy-terminal hydrophobic site Ser660 (2). Atypical PKC isoforms lack hydrophobic region phosphorylation, which correlates with the presence of glutamic acid rather than the serine or threonine residues found in more typical PKC isoforms. The enzyme PDK1 or a close relative is responsible for PKC activation. A recent addition to the PKC superfamily is PKCμ (PKD), which is regulated by DAG and TPA through its C1 domain. PKD is distinguished by the presence of a PH domain and by its unique substrate recognition and Golgi localization (6). PKC-related kinases (PRK) lack the C1 domain and do not respond to DAG or phorbol esters. Phosphatidylinositol lipids activate PRKs, and small Rho-family GTPases bind to the homology region 1 (HR1) to regulate PRK kinase activity (7).
PKCβ has two isoforms, PKCβI and PKCβII, due to alternative splicing (8).
- Nishizuka, Y. (1984) Nature 308, 693-8.
- Keranen, L.M. et al. (1995) Curr Biol 5, 1394-403.
- Mellor, H. and Parker, P.J. (1998) Biochem J 332 ( Pt 2), 281-92.
- Ron, D. and Kazanietz, M.G. (1999) FASEB J 13, 1658-76.
- Moscat, J. and Diaz-Meco, M.T. (2000) EMBO Rep 1, 399-403.
- Baron, C.L. and Malhotra, V. (2002) Science 295, 325-8.
- Flynn, P. et al. (2000) J Biol Chem 275, 11064-70.
- Kawakami, T. et al. (2002) J Biochem 132, 677-82.
Tween is a registered trademark of ICI Americas, Inc.
XP is a registered trademark of Cell Signaling Technology, Inc.
Alexa Fluor is a registered trademark of Life Technologies Corporation.
Cell Signaling Technology is a trademark of Cell Signaling Technology, Inc.