#83613 Phospho-RIP (Ser321) Antibody (Mouse Specific)
|Phospho-RIP (Ser321) Antibody (Mouse Specific) recognizes endogenous levels of RIP protein only when phosphorylated at Ser321.|
|Polyclonal antibodies are produced by immunizing animals with a synthetic phospho-peptide corresponding to residues surrounding Ser321 of mouse RIP protein. Antibodies are purified by protein A and peptide affinity chromatography.|
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Western blot analysis of extracts from C2C12 cells, untreated (-) or treated with Mouse Tumor Necrosis Factor-α #5178 (mTNF-α; 20 ng/ml, 5 min; +) with or without Lambda Phosphatase (λPPase) and Calf Intestinal Phosphatase (CIP) (+) as indicated, using Phospho-RIP (Ser321) Antibody (upper), total RIP (D94C12) XP® Rabbit mAb #3493 (middle), or β-Actin (D6A8) Rabbit mAb #8457 (lower).
Western blot analysis of extracts from MEF or MEF/RIP KO cells, untreated (-) or treated with Mouse Tumor Necrosis Factor-α #5178 (mTNF-α; 20 ng/ml, 5 min; +), using Phospho-RIP (Ser321) Antibody (Mouse Specific) (upper), total RIP (D94C12) XP® Rabbit mAb #3493 (middle), or β-Actin (D6A8) Rabbit mAb #8457 (lower). MEF/RIP KO cells were kindly provided by Dr. Junying Yuan, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA.
The receptor-interacting protein (RIP) family of serine-threonine kinases (RIP, RIP2, RIP3, and RIP4) are important regulators of cellular stress that trigger pro-survival and inflammatory responses through the activation of NF-κB, as well as pro-apoptotic pathways (1). In addition to the kinase domain, RIP contains a death domain responsible for interaction with the death domain receptor Fas and recruitment to TNF-R1 through interaction with TRADD (2,3). RIP-deficient cells show a failure in TNF-mediated NF-κB activation, making the cells more sensitive to apoptosis (4,5). RIP also interacts with TNF-receptor-associated factors (TRAFs) and can recruit IKKs to the TNF-R1 signaling complex via interaction with NEMO, leading to IκB phosphorylation and degradation (6,7). Overexpression of RIP induces both NF-κB activation and apoptosis (2,3). Caspase-8-dependent cleavage of the RIP death domain can trigger the apoptotic activity of RIP (8).
Necroptosis, a regulated pathway for necrotic cell death, is triggered by a number of inflammatory signals, including cytokines in the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) family, pathogen sensors such as toll-like receptors (TLRs), and ischemic injury (9,10). The process is negatively regulated by caspases and is initiated through a complex containing the RIP and RIP3 kinases, typically referred to as the necrosome. Necroptosis is inhibited by a small molecule inhibitor of RIP, necrostatin-1 (Nec-1) (11). Research studies show that necroptosis contributes to a number of pathological conditions, and Nec-1 has been shown to provide neuroprotection in models such as ischemic brain injury (12). RIP is phosphorylated at several sites within the kinase domain that are sensitive to Nec-1, including Ser14, Ser15, Ser161, and Ser166 (13).
RIP is also phosphorylated at Ser321(mouse)/Ser320(human) by MAPKAPK-2 (MK-2) and TAK1 in response to inflammatory signals such as TNF-α and LPS (14-17). Phosporylation at this site suppresses RIP mediated apoptosis by inhibiting its interaction with FADD and caspase-8 (14-17).
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